2013年 06月 01日
In the nineteenth century, the German philosopher Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (1770–1831) believed that ancient skepticism was of great philosophical importance while modern skepticism had little merit.
The Danish philosopher Søren Kierkegaard (1813–1855) incorporated skepticism into his theology. One of the prize questions of the Royal Academy in Paris concerned the failure of all answers to skepticism.
The Swiss philologist and philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche (1844–1900) made skepticism a significant part of his philosophy.
Karl Marx (1818–1883) and Sigmund Freud (1856–1939) followed in a long-established tradition of using various skepticisms against their opponents but then claiming dogmatic truth for their own positions. Their practice reflected the important distinction between partial skepticism (e.g., of claims in one domain, such as religion, or the claims of an opposing political party) and global or universal skepticism, which suspends judgment about everything.
2013年 06月 01日
He was called the "all-destroyer" because of his rejection of many other dogmatic philosophies.
The Prussian philosopher Immanuel Kant (1724–1804) was called the "all-destroyer" because of his rejection of many other dogmatic philosophies.
He adopted skeptical Greek vocabulary when he argued that one could have no knowledge of the noumena—the reality behind appearances—but only of the phenomena.
He saved free will and morality from scientific determinism by reducing human knowledge of them to faith rather than knowledge.
Carl Friedrich Stäudlin：非哲学的懐疑論を否定、哲学的懐疑論は反駁されえないが
Other skeptics writing in German in his time included Salomon Maimon and Gottlob Ernst "Aenesidemus" Schulze. When Carl Friedrich Stäudlin's Geschichte und Geist des Skepticismus (History and spirit of skepticism) of 1794 showed Hume facing Kant on the title page, it was clear that these two thinkers had posed the skeptical challenge for the age. Stäudlin denounced unphilosophical skepticism even as he demonstrated that philosophical skepticism could not be refuted.
2013年 06月 01日
Reception in and since the Enlightenment 啓蒙の時代以後の受容
The Scottish philosopher David Hume responded to the skeptical challenge in ways that made him central to philosophical discussion up to the twenty-first century. His Treatise of Human Nature (1739–1740) argued for skepticism about both facts and reason. His critique of causation reduces it to little more than a habit based on constant conjunction. And yet in typical skeptical fashion he showed people how to live with skepticism on the basis of probabilities and custom.
2013年 06月 01日
Later thinkers often started from Montaigne.
デカルト 私は私が存在していることを知っている 真理を確保するために宗教、「神の誠実」を援用
One who went beyond him in posing questions of skepticism was René Descartes
(1596–1650). Without specific precedent in the ancient materials, he set out to answer the skeptical idea that there could be an all-powerful malin genie or evil demon that manipulates human perceptions and reasoning, fooling people about the world. His conclusion was that individuals know of their existence because they can think
—the famous "I think therefore I am." Explaining why one's perceptions of thinking could not be a deception, Descartes asserts that God would not allow such deception. Religion is invoked to certify truth
. Later skeptics would worry about a deceiving God.
Pierre-Daniel Huet(1630–1721) ：セクスタスを援用してデカルトを徹底的に批判(1723)
Pierre Bayle (1647–1706)：彼以前の全哲学を攻撃 しかし、道徳的厳格主義を主張
Bishop Pierre-Daniel Huet (1630–1721) and the Huguenot refugee Pierre Bayle (1647–1706) have been described as the "master skeptics." Huet invoked Sextus Empiricus in great detail against Descartes and many other dogmatic philosophers in his Traité philosophique de la foiblesse de l'esprit humaine (1723; Philosophical tract on the weakness of the human mind). Bayle's massive works attacked all previous philosophy and historical scholarship but upheld moral rigorism.
2013年 06月 01日
Early Reception 初期の受容
Occasional references to the ancient Pyrrhonist
s can be found throughout the late Roman and early medieval periods. The oldest extant Greek manuscript of Sextus
dates from the tenth century
, and manuscripts of Latin translations existed in medieval collections by the fourteenth century.
More manuscripts came into Italy from Byzantium in the mid-fifteenth century, when the Florentine religious leader Girolamo Savonarola (1452–1498) used Sextus to combat pagan philosoph
y非キリスト教哲学., and the humanist scholar Pico della Mirandola drew on Sextus to fight other dogmatists
. Knowledge of the materials eventually spread into France and other northern countries.
1562ラテン訳出版by Henri II Estienne
モンテーニュ(Essays; 1580–1595)： ”Defense of Raymond Sebond” セクスタス援用
He showed people how to live a good life in spite of skepticism.
The printing press made for the most influential dissemination普及 of these texts. Published Latin translations by Henri II Estienne (Stephanus) (1562) and Gentian Hervet (1569) provided the stimulus for a widespread "skeptical crisis." Michel de Montaigne (1533–1592) was the most influential of the early European writers to draw on the writings of Sextus in his Essais (Essays; 1580–1595). In his longest essay, "Defense of Raymond Sebond," Montaigne retailed most of the skeptical tropes and all of the skeptical vocabulary from Sextus Empiricus. In this and other essays he demolished pretensions to human knowledge and argued both sides of nearly all issues. He was never pessimistic but showed people how to live a good life in spite of skepticism, which helps explain why his work was so popular.
2013年 05月 30日
Even in ancient times, critics of the skeptics accused them of inconsistency, incoherence, immorality, and inability to live their skepticism.
These arguments were more and less sophisticated, and ranged widely from the claim that skeptics cannot be fully skeptical
because they believe their own positions are true to the claim that skeptics will not make reliable friends.
As late as the 1980s, a number of scholars of ancient skepticism continued to maintain these claims, but opinion turned in the 1990s as a consensus emerged
that skeptics could indeed live their skepticism
, and that they would not necessarily be any more immoral than followers of other philosophies.
Much of Sextus's text consists of refutation of other dogmatic philosophies of the time. Since he quoted their ideas in order to refute them, his text has been an important source of information about ancient Stoicism, Epicureanism, and other philosophies.
2013年 05月 30日
In Sextus's account, the basic ten tropes or formula arguments
show that the same thing appears differently (1) to different animals, (2) to different individuals, (3) to different senses, (4) to the same sense in different conditions, (5) in different positions or places, (6) in company with different things, (7) in different quantities, (8) in different relations, (9) if common or if rare, and (10) to people with different customs or ways of life. Thus, any claim about a thing could be matched with an equal counterclaim.
bring out the problem of the criterion (an infinite regress), unresolved disputes
, problems with attributing causation, and more.
背後の実在(真理）について判断することなく現われの世界に生きる 本能 習慣 法に従い生きる
The result of the skeptical tropes was that one would suspend judgment (epochē ) and then find oneself in ataraxia, or tranquility, no longer disturbed by conflicting claims. One would live in accordance with the phenomena or appearances, without taking a stand on the truth or reality behind them. One would follow one's natural impulses as well as local customs and laws.
2013年 05月 30日
セクストス(2世紀）Outlines of Pyrrhonism
The chief source for ancient Pyrrhonism is the work of the Greek physician Sextus Empiricus
(second century c.e.), including Outlines of Pyrrhonism
, Against the Dogmatists, and Against the Mathematicians.Once thought of as a mere compiler, many recent studies have found philosophical originality in his texts
As Sextus explained it, skepticism was not a philosophy but rather a way of life in which one opposed all claims to truth with equal opposite claims (equipollence)
Diogenes Laertius(3世紀）：古代懐疑論のもう一つのソースStandard tropes or formula arguments
could be used against any certainty or truth. He attributed one set of these tropes to the Greek philosopher Aenesidemus
and another to Agrippa
(both first century b.c.e.). Diogenes Laertius's Lives of the Philosophers (early third century c.e.) is also a source for information about ancient skepticism, including the tropes.
2013年 05月 30日
humanist Desiderius Erasmus
(1466?–1536) admired Academic skepticism in his Praise of Folly(1511), which provoked opposition from Christians like Philipp Melanchthon (1487–1560). Gianfrancesco Pico della Mirandola's Examen Vanitatis (1520) drew from both Cicero and Sextus Empiricus. Omer Talon emphasized the Academics' philosophical freedom from dogmatism in his Academia of 1547, and Petrus Ramus praised their rhetoric and style in Ciceronianus of 1557. Giulio Castellani (1528–1586) defended Aristotelianism against Academic skepticism in Adversus Marci Tullii Ciceronis (1558), arguing that disagreement is not as widespread as the skeptics claimed
. Johannes Rosa (1532–1571) brought out a substantial early commentary on the Academica in German
in 1571, and Pedro de Valencia (1555–1620) refashioned Academic skepticism in his own Academica of 1596, published in Spain
ヒューム、ときにアカデメイア懐疑論者と呼ばれたPublication of Sextus Empiricus's works in the 1560s replaced Cicero as the chief source of information about ancient skepticism
. After that point most authors drew their inspiration from both sources, so it is hard to speak of purely Academic skeptics
from then on. One exception is David Hume
(1711–1776), sometimes called an Academic skeptic
, among other reasons because a character in his Dialogues concerning Natural Religion (1779) takes the role of an Academic. There has also been scholarly debate about whether other individual early modern figures were Academic skeptics or Pyrrhonians
, but in this period the two traditions were often run together and few, if any, authors made a clear distinction.
2013年 05月 30日
Academic Skepticism アカデメイア懐疑派
キケロのAcademica (45 b.c.e.)
アウグスチヌスのContra Academicos (Against the Academics; 386 c.e.)
The Roman philosopher and statesman Marcus Tullius Cicero (106–43 b.c.e.) is the chief source for Academic skepticism. His Academica (45 b.c.e.) reports on the teachings of Arcesilaus (315–240 b.c.e.) and Carneades (214–129 b.c.e.), both heads of the Academy, and he claims allegiance to the Academic school. St. Augustine of Hippo's earliest extant work, Contra Academicos (Against the Academics; 386 c.e.), is also an important source of knowledge about Academic skepticism.
Socrates can be placed at the origins of skepticism if it is understood that he only asked questions and did not teach positive doctrines. Plato and Aristotle strayed from his path when they claimed to know the truth. Arcesilaus gave renewed vigor to skepticism, arguing against the opinions of all men, as Cicero put it. But he also showed that skeptics could make choices in accordance with the eulogon (the reasonable) in the absence of truth. Carneades, also a master of arguing on both sides of every issue, refined this into the standard of the pithanon (the credible). Cicero translated this into Latin as probabile, setting the stage for the skeptics' claim to live by the probable in the absence of truth.
Manuscripts of Cicero's Academica were available in the Middle Ages to figures such as John of Salisbury (1115–1180), who used it to underpin defenses of liberty of thought and speech. The text was first printed at Rome in 1471, followed by numerous commentaries and annotations. By 1600 more than 100 editions had been published.